Introduction of Optical fiber fusion Splicer and Its Work

What is the Optical fiber fusion Splicer ?

Optical fiber fusion splicer is a mechanical device that physically connects two optical fiber end faces. This process will vary depending on the type of optical fiber spliced. It is mainly used for the construction, maintenance and emergency repair of optical cable lines of telecom operators, communication engineering companies and institutions, so it is also called optical cable fusion splicer.

Optical fiber fusion splicer is mainly composed of fusion splicer host, key control panel, windproof cover, heating tank, clear display screen, handle and other parts.

The general working principle is to use a high-voltage arc to melt the sections of the two optical fibers, and at the same time, use a high-precision motion mechanism to smoothly advance the two optical fibers to merge into one, so as to realize the coupling of the optical fiber mode fields. 

fiber fusion splicer

Classification of fiber optic fusion splicers

Ordinary optical fiber fusion splicer generally refers to single-core optical fiber fusion splicer. In addition, there are ribbon optical fiber fusion splicers specially used for fusion splicing ribbon optical fibers, leather wire fusion splicers for splicing leather cables and jumpers, and fusion splicing guarantees. Polarization maintaining fiber fusion splicer, etc.

According to the different alignment methods, fiber fusion splicers can be divided into two categories: cladding alignment and core alignment. The cladding-aligned type is mainly suitable for occasions such as fiber-to-the-home with low requirements, so the price is relatively low; Accurately identify the fiber type and automatically select the matching fusion mode to ensure the quality of the fusion.

Optic fiber fusion splicer has now developed a hand-held optical fiber fusion splicer for the convenience of construction, as well as a ribbon for splicing ribbon optical fibers, and a leather wire fusion splicer for splicing leather cables and jumpers.

The composition of optical fiber fusion splicer

  1. Display screen of fusion splicer

   The fusion splicer uses an infrared light source and a display screen to observe the entire optical fiber fusion process, and the optical fiber magnification can reach 200-300 times. In the past, many domestic brand models used to change the focal length to observe the X and Y directions of the optical fiber, and the fusion speed was very slow. The current fusion splicer generally uses the direct view method (PAS) to monitor the alignment, and the liquid crystal display can simultaneously display the fiber fusion process in the X and Y directions, so as to observe the fiber state and fusion quality, and the fusion speed is faster.

  1. Controller

   The controller usually includes two parts, the monitoring unit and the microprocessor. The monitoring unit is the monitoring of the local optical power, and the automatic adjustment and connection loss estimation are completed by the microprocessor. The discharge time and discharge current of the originating end can be adjusted by changing the microprocessor program. The third-generation machine uses a high-resolution camera to view the fiber vertically, displays the fiber image on the fluorescent screen, and uses the lens effect of the fiber cladding to directly display the alignment of the fiber core. At the same time, the camera provides this observation information to the central microprocessor controller, which controls the fine-tuning machinery for automatic alignment, and controls the indirect estimation of discharge and optical fiber connection loss.

  1. High pressure source of heating furnace

 There are two main types of high-voltage sources, one is a high-voltage source that boosts 50Hz, 220V AC to 3000-4000V voltage and a current of about 20mA; the other is a 20kH or 40kHz high-frequency power supply. The high-frequency high-voltage source has the characteristics of small size and high efficiency of the transformer, and the circuit adopts integrated circuits, so it is most used in practical engineering practice.

  1. Discharge electrode

  A pair of electrodes with a 300 conical tip processed from a tungsten rod is installed on the electrode holder of the welding machine, and the electrode tip interval is generally 0.7mm. When the optical fiber is spliced, the electric arc is generated between the electrodes through the discharge of the electrodes, and the instantaneous temperature reaches about 2000 ℃, which melts the optical fiber at the center of the arc. After the electrode is used for a period of time, there will be an oxide adhesion layer on the surface, and the electrode should be cleaned regularly. The general ordinary electrode is discharged for 2000 times. If the electrode is used excessively, it will affect the quality of the optical fiber connection.

  1. Alignment frame

The core adjustment device of the optical fiber fusion splicer, also known as the debugging frame, usually uses a "lever" type fine adjustment mechanism. The three-dimensional fine-tuning of the V-groove is achieved by a helical micrometer installed at the end of the long rod. Fibers placed in the V-groove are held in place by mechanical clamps. The X, Y direction fine adjustment is driven by the servo motor, the lever mechanism is to make the adjustment more fine, and the axial (Z direction) adjustment is moved by the screw micrometer. The fine-tuning range of this mechanism is ±105m, the adjustment accuracy is ±0.1μm, and the Z-axis displacement accuracy is better than 1μm.

What is the working principle of optical fiber fusion splicer?

Optical fiber fusion splicer is the most widely used splicing method in optical fiber engineering. Its principle is to use arc fusion method to generate high temperature above 2000 ℃ by arc discharge, so that two optical fibers can be fused into one optical fiber. Configure a high-performance optical fiber fusion splicer.

Today, we mainly introduce the working principle, steps and function of optical fiber fusion splicer in optical fiber work. 

The steps of optical fiber fusion work

The optical fiber fusion splicing operation is divided into the following steps: stripping, cutting, melting, and reeling.

Tools used: fusion splicer; cutting knife; Miller pliers; alcohol cotton; optical fiber; heat shrinkable sleeve.

Optical fiber stripping: including stripping of optical cables, pigtails, coatings, etc. (The detailed operation steps are as follows 1, 2, 3,)

1.Gently press and hold the switch button of the fusion machine, and let go after the power-on indicator light is on;

2.After confirming that there is no dirt in the heat-shrinkable sleeve, insert the optical fiber into the heat-shrinkable sleeve;

3.Strip the fiber coating layer with Miller clamps, the length is 4cm;

fiber splicing

Stripping fiber pigtails

Fiber cutting: refers to cutting the fiber neatly with a fiber cleaver to facilitate fusion splicing. The detailed operation steps are as follows (4, 5):

4.Clean the surface of the optical fiber with alcohol cotton 3 times (which can reduce the loss of the optical fiber) to achieve a state of no attachment;

5.Put the clean optical fiber into the guide groove of the cleaver, and align the front end of the coating with the position between 16mm and 12mm on the scale of the cleaver;

fiber spicer

Fusion fiber: Put the cut fiber into the fiber fusion splicer for fusion, and then heat the heat shrinkable tube for protection. (The detailed operation steps are as follows 6, 7, 8, 9)

6.Put the cut two optical fibers into the fixture of the fusion splicer respectively. Do not touch the fiber end face when placing, and keep the fiber end face between the electrode rod and the V-groove.

optic fiber fusion splicer

7.Cover the windshield and start welding.


Optic fiber fusion splicer fusion fiber diagram

8.Open the windshield, open the left and right clamp pressure plates in turn, and take out the optical fiber

9.Then move the heat-shrinkable sleeve to the fusion splicing point, and make sure that both ends of the heat-shrinkable sleeve cover the fiber coating.

10. Put the optical fiber covered with the heat shrinkable sleeve into the heater, then cover the heater cover, and at the same time the heating indicator lights up, the machine will automatically start to heat the heat shrinkable sleeve.

11. When the heating indicator goes out, the heat shrinking is completed. Lift the heater cover, take out the fiber, and put it into the cooling tray.

Application of optic fiber fusion splice

  1. Construction, maintenance and emergency repair of optical cable lines of telecom operators, communication engineering companies and public institutions;
  2. Experiment, production and testing of optical devices;
  3. Scientific research;
  4. Teaching and research on optical fiber communication majors in colleges and universities

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